Apnea / Fisheries sub-

Global maneuver lifts designed by Gabriele Dani – Sports or apnea spearfishing techniques

The global Maneuver lifts designed by Gabriele Dani can be applied effectively in deep freediving or spearfishing emergence phase abysmal.

The Global lift manoeuvre designed by Gabriele Dani It can be applied effectively in the emerging phase Apnea deep or spearfishing abysmal.

After a long teaching currently offer two types of sleep apnea solution. The first and more classic expected to hold the snorkel in your mouth and empty it via a forced expiration that aims to push off from it the pillar of water accumulatavisi. This has the great disadvantage of having to make a real muscular effort exactly at the moment when the partial pressure of oxygen tension came to its minimum. If, on the one hand, stress can make a difference in negative between fall in syncope once at surface,the other will present the advantage that when we lost the consciousness we will stage the blackout that will precede that of involuntary respiratory stimulus recovery,in the supine position but with snorkel emptied onto a lung full communication with the outside world. Of course it is assumed by the freediver a type of lightweight structure that is also positive in any complete exhalation.

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The second solution eliminates the problem at the root not foreseeing the snorkel fitted into his mouth. Are then deleted several disturbing factors and risk:the main and most important thing is of course the exhale work needed to push out the column of water that has some weight,the secondary are the biggest time needed to exhale and the dead space that once freed the snorkel is still occupied by stale air being reintroduced into the Airways again before the influx of atmospheric air. The second maneuver takes place in an upright position with the head above water while breathing out as little as possible to avoid the sudden drop of oxygen tension and breathing as quickly and fully as possible to avoid the blackout. The latter if it favours giving us a moment and extra energy before any syncope ,the other mortal risks leaving us totally exposes us to helpless if happened. We always imagine a lone fisherman who is in difficulties ,in this case, upside down and with the mouth with water. The position is kept upside down by Anatomy of femoral and humeral joints Bachelor coxo functioning as a joint excursion limiters,placing the arts as barbells preventing the reversal on the back unless it is completely voluntary. The resumption of respiratory stimuli will not have the slightest ability to inflate with air and with a small change of trim due to partial flooding of the lungs,will plummet rapidly towards the bottom. The maneuver that I propose is to improve the SURVIVAL RATES by eliminating the disadvantages of two manoeuvres previously exposed.


In order to explain the manoeuvre that I'm putting in this report,We must start with the identification and explanation of some physiological phenomena that occur in humans immersed in apnea. We will cover the Diving REFLEX(DIVING REFLEX),BLOOD from slipping (BLOOD SHIFT)and his incomplete recovery,diaphragmatic contractions.


The adaptation of human body to the descent in apnea starts by simply immersing the face in the water. This reflex also known as a "reflection of the sink" is useful to explain that there is an innate ability and primitive that allows you to protect us against the effects of immersion and prepare us for that. The immediate effects are highlighted with a peripheral vasoconstriction associated with slow heartbeat. Vasoconstriction takes place predominantly in the limbs by reducing the caliber reducing blood volume circulating in them. This is an initial migration of a small portion of the blood mass towards the small circle. The slow heartbeat or bradycardia by immersion fits as mentioned above only touching of the face with water and is due to stimulation of the autonomic nervous system and in particular the activity of the vagus nerve (parasympathetic).It is believed that these two adjustments going in the direction of thermoregulation so we attempt to keep the hot blood and body Center.


The discovery of this physiological phenomenon is relatively recent and dates back to the seventies in which the diver Enzo Maiorca reaching i-51 m proved to the scientific community that the knowledge of the reactions of their athlete's body engaged in extreme acts in some cases anticipates the development of scientific theories.

The French physician Cabarrou hitherto regarded as subject matter expert,assumed that a man with 6 liters of total lung volume consisting of 5 litres of vital capacity and 1 liter of tracheal bronchus dead space could at most reach down to a depth of 50 m. Due to Boyle's law and Mariotte saying that pressure and volume are inversely proportional,the depth of 50 m would be the date on which that volume of 6 liters would be reduced pressure 6 times higher than that of the surface, only one liter,corresponding to its volume of space tracheal bronchus. In addition it would have imploded. That did not happen and we now know that the diving reflex precedes and prepares blood from slipping. In fact we have observed an enormous blood flow through the superior and inferior vena cava arrives to the area of the right heart dilating beyond measure the ventricle wall. Pressure on the system, there is an increased hydraulic resistance of the vessels which implies the difficulty to systolic left heart especially from resulting in stagnation of blood in the so-called small circle or pulmonary circulation. In practice to prevent crushing of the thorax(theoretical effect of Boyle's law and Mariotte) the body adapts by occupying the space where you normally find those 5 liters of air a substantial theoretical space by the blood fluid that we know by its nature be incompressible thereby internal back pressure prevents the implosion. This is due in large part to the ability of the pulmonary vessels to widen up to five times the size of the original diameter.


In summary we can say that there is an enormous pressure stimulus behind blood flow sluggish in small circle. We know that the effects of this stagnation remains dry for a certain period of time ,even dry and many hours after the end of the dive. Take care however in detail of what occurs during the ascent. The decreased pressure hydraulic resistance and reverses the backwater tends to rebalance quickly entering blood this time from small to large circle. The balance takes place, however, depending on the system's ability to convey the blood flow and it is obvious that it cannot be instant. Also the rate of ascent in the very high and certainly higher than the freediver is often the descent particularly in fishermen not to alarm the prey they prefer to adopt the technique of slow descent. For these reasons, upon arrival at the surface the diver finds himself still stagnant in intra thoracic circle a small blood volume that still clamping from inside the famous volume of 5 liters. Cause your blood recovery Flash announces its effects just begun ascending manifested through those bubbles you see always exit the surfacing sub mask. This air outlet is ongoing and will depend on the rate of ascent and the intensity and frequency of diaphragmatic contractions. Will match a maximum dispersion in time of relaxation of the diaphragm during Kickback upward when the mechanical action might tend to create an upward flow also favored by the rapidly expanding gas.


We know that apnea is divided into two phases,the so-called phase of the welfare and the stage of suffering. Suffering is caused by a number of events due to oxygen consumption and the consequent rise in the rate of carbon dioxide. Chemical receptors present in the spinal cord, and more precisely in the trunk the mesencephalic nucleus recorded the latter variation and in response they send signals to nerve responsible for diaphragmatic muscle motility exciters. As we know the diaphragmatic dome's tendon is lowered by the action of muscle contraction bands creating an involuntary action that aims to attract air in the lower lung pyramid.

Now that we've covered physiological phenomena involved in the immersion we can move on to explain how you can take advantage of while running the global maneuver lifts.


How do then the maneuver?


We must first leave the snorkel in your mouth. The reasons for leaving it worn always depend mainly on the fact that the maneuver will end with this mode. However, there are other important advantages in this habit the descent and which also provide for the technique which I called IOIDEA compensation. In this position the jaw breaks free and runs also a long palate favoring undoubtedly movements that,starting from the muscles above and below ioidea ,involve a series of contiguous tissue close to the opening of the orifices of the eustachian tube and in particular under them. It's like if you pretensionasse this chain sottorifiziali tissues in a sort of tissue putting mechanical situation which will facilitate the opening under stress of the maneuvers of compensation. Teaching translation practice provides for mandibular movement with simple or compound movements. For simple movements are lowering and anterior-posterior movement of the mandible,to compound means the combination of the two possibly supplemented by small lateral movement. The diver will experience depending on your unique morphology which are the movements that make opening orifices. The exercise you can try comfortably dry. For particularly predisposed ioidea compensation will be a real compensation technique ,for others just a FACILITATION TECHNIQUE.


The habit to keep wearing the mouthpiece increases awareness of the psychic tensions.

We easily recognize a person nervous or tense observing contracts and rhythmic movements of the jaw. Of course submerged tensions are more common in life and have an impact on masseter muscle contraction. It is much easier to listen to their own tensions so as to contrast the bite the snorkel. The increased awareness promotes a consequent higher relaxation of masseter muscles and tongue. The root of the tongue being closely linked to the glottis drags before with him determining their opening or making the same. As we know from the studies of Dr. Malpieri ; the opening of the glottis is a discriminating factor so as not to stumble in the pulmonary barotrauma from deep lift. Even just for this purpose, it may be advisable to keep the snorkel worn to a preventive measure of security


Freediving has reached slowly the Fund,the compartmentalization of blood in the thoracic intra circle will be coming to it's fullest,begin your ascent with associated with diaphragmatic contractions. The reversal of the blood stagnation now on the way back to the great circle not being blood accumulation that causes a snapshot still leaves internal pressure that tends to squeeze out the air out of the mask. The push air into the mask outward migration will be favored not only by the re-expansion of trend,also from the diaphragm pushes dating back upward to end contraction. To work around this will swell the contraction time lingering with an intentional action in the extroversion of the abdomen to outside(lowering of the diaphragm). This can be explained to the freediver simply asking him to "pull up" in a prolonged manner with their noses as children do with cold mask facial will become lighter each time due to the pressure of the gas reexpansion. For the less evolved simply asking to pull up every couple of seconds. The maneuver proposal in addition to recovering the air helps the gaseous mixing air space by moving one hand Virgin contained dead tracheal bronchus and into the mask to the alveoli where it stagnated stale air. It could be argued that hold your breath in this way might favor the onset of barotrauma to the more pressure that is to be determined in the lungs more than who was in equal altitude downhill. I believe that this does not happen for two reasons. The position of the glottis opening snorkel worn AIDS makes this overpressure has ratcheted hunting each other the way out and it won't be "pulling up" with the nose that we shall prevent the air to expand or escape without creating damage. The second reason I realized during my teaching experience in pescasub. Before diving, spearfishing fulfilled in most cases an inspiration which has never capped. Materially fails to ask constantly attention to the completeness of the inspiratory gesture,This is therefore a typical gesture leading to enter roughly the 85% the maximum volume that dilates the blood stagnation, therefore aria.in catchable lifts still has a beautiful volume to fill equal to or greater than half a litre. Even in pure freediver this risk is low unless you make the manoeuvre of "carpa" or breathing glosso-pharyngeal that prepress the air in your lungs by associating maybe her jaw closed without snorkel pushing in twitching the glottis bottom tapping the trachea.

THE THEORETICAL GAIN,The 10ÞLLA OUR APNEA:to quantify the possible theoretical gain of air recovery we provide some other data. Let us imagine a 150cc mask offset by blowing air up to 30 m deep.. Considering the 4 ATM therein,We will have in our well-crafted 600cc reduced to 150 the pressure rise In the incomplete recovery of the slippage and blood gas reexpansion combine to make out the difference and that is about 450cc outside in the form of those bubbles that all of us have observed we leave behind. Managing to restrain this volume we have detained nearly 10% of our volume forfeited with the latest inspiration. Air blown into the mask from outer space who died and then oxygenated not having participated in the gas exchange. If our hard apnea such as 90sec,catching and appropriately that air will earn 8 scrambling 9 sec. But if even at worst were only 5 the latter earned,don't you think that it is not sufficient to dismiss the risk black outs?


We arrive at this point near the surface having withheld this air that he wanted to go out incomplete recovery of blood from inside the shift pressed. In theoretical explanations often liken the volumes of fruit blood stagnation. I speak then the volume of a large melon challenging odds,Turning to the grapefruit,the volume of a Mandarin orange until near the surface. This Mandarin didn't expect to escape and then drove about one meter from the surface does not have to do anything but stop detaining him allowing ,WITHOUT ANYONE EXHALE WORK,moves from the mouth to snorkel. Exhalation effort is not required because the air in that last metro expanding it will flush automatically from practical tests during the long years in which I have adopted this technique I found in fact that Mandarin is air initially that volume, afterwards we continue we completing nearly all exhale. From the didactic point of view is a simple learning,only requires some attention to synchronize the start time of exhalation facilitated.

We have the enormous advantage of having lowered the risks of going to syncope as expiratory efforts will not(as in the maneuver without snorkel)though remaining in contact with air(as in the maneuver with the exhalation in surface)If we fell unconscious. In addition we will have gnawed more time starting the exhale a meter below,supplementing it in that metro route in that last second,ready to inhale just the tip of the snorkel face to the surface. The upside-down position with arms as barbells will be the one that will keep us in balance without letting water into the respiratory tract. After a few seconds,the resumption of involuntary breathing we will have a much better chance to resume breathing, and then to awaken from the blackout.



In 1989 an acquaintance told me that was fishing the bottom,He was alone with very little ballast. Managed to get to the surface after a dive to the limit,just released the mouthpiece from the water fell unconscious I remained impressed that said of waking up breathing in the snorkel,at some distance from the balloon sign why he had remained unconscious for a time and transported by the current. From there I had the intuition that I'd never abandoned the snorkel. Afterwards I was natural experiment,first starting the exhale a little beneath the surface making me then don't need moderately deep dives that account at all. Often freedivers puri don't use the mouthpiece for those few extreme dips ,have teams or dive buddies supervising them. They are not therefore in the need to make them up. all to increase the chances of surviving a trivial syncope for a lone pescasub often means death.

Besides the advantage to stay in communication with the air,the theoretical gain of the first stage of quantifiable manoeuvre between the 5 and the 10% diving time makes itself a terrific antidote to loss of consciousness. The second stage allows you to anticipate inspiration gaining another second or so in critical stage. The sum is counted among the 6 and 10 sec at most I dedicated this Treaty to play football that I recommend first of all fishing in pairs,at shallow depths and using little ballast. For those with responsibility and conscience feels to tackle the most challenging descents or Solitaire hope this maneuver of my own invention that I use and teach for decades with great success,give you more safety margins and even a small chance of survival in case of syncope afloat,the most statistically frequent.

Update 30-06-2012

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of Naturaestrema.it team 21 March 2012